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Primary Sources

Darkwater: Voices from within the Veil
The text of the 1920 edition is available on the Web. The book contains a series of essays, each of which is followed by a fictional work (short story or poem). While Souls deserves its praise, Du Bois' Darkwater merits wider recognition. In the book he explicitly addressed significant issues, such as the oppression of women and Eurocentric standards of beauty, the historical rise of the idea of whiteness, and the abridgement of democracy along race, class, and gender lines.

Table of Contents for Darkwater
I. The Shadow of Years
"A Litany at Atlanta"
II. The Souls of White Folk
"The Riddle of the Sphinx"
III. The Hands of Ethiopia
"The Princess of the Hither Isles"
IV. Of Work and Wealth
"The Second Coming"
V. "The Servant in the House"
"Jesus Christ in Texas"
VI. Of the Ruling of Men
"The Call"
VII. The Damnation of Women
"Children of the Moon"
VIII. The Immortal Child
"Almighty Death"
IX. Of Beauty and Death
"The Prayers of God"
X. The Comet
"A Hymn to the Peoples"

This page is divided into sections, wherein you can find online resources pertaining to:
* Internet-available copies of Darkwater in various formats as well as other primary sources;
* primary works by Du Bois, such as essays or poetry, that were or became part of Darkwater but are accessible separately online;
* book reviews and notices -- and even a poem -- by various contemporaries of Du Bois;
* a later celebration commemorating the book;
* secondary sources that utilize Darkwater or its component works directly or indirectly as a point of reference (including an encyclopedia profile of Darkwater written by the web site facilitator [info below]); and
* related sources with a bearing on some topic or issue raised in Darkwater.
Clicking one of the above links will situate you at the associated spot below.
Robert W. Williams, Ph.D.  [Bio] 

LATEST LINK (For 1 April 2023)
A Search Engine
Posted below is an external link to, an online aggregator and database of open access materials distributed from across the Internet. I suggest a search string for Darkwater.

Darkwater: Voices from within the Veil. 1920. (NY: Harcourt, Brace & Co.)
The full text is accessible at:
Electronic Text Center, University of Virginia Library (HTML)
http://etext.lib. [T.O.C.]
[Note 1: UVA no longer maintains the web page. The link points to the Internet Archive site.]
[Note 2: This version retains the pagination from the 1920 edition.]
Google Book Search [link] (PDF format, appox. 4 MB) com/books?vid=OCLC08784895....  [About-this-book]
Internet Archive [link] (available in the DjVu format and others)
http://www.  [Search results]
Project Gutenberg (HTML, plain text, and iso-8859-1 encoded text)
HathiTrust Digital Library (catalog page to copies from multiple libraries) has converted the Project Gutenberg text of Darkwater
into various formats for use on PDAs, iPods, and various eBook readers, including the Kindle
http://manybooks. net/titles/boiswebd15211521015210-8.html
The Credo online repository provides very useful primary sources pertinent to Darkwater. The Credo Online Repository is a database of the Du Bois Special Collection that is located at the University of Massachusetts Amherst library. Searching the Credo database for the book title: "Darkwater" will yield a range of correspondence to and from Du Bois and the book publisher as well as between Du Bois and various persons. Note that the search will find draft manuscripts of component works within Darkwater, including poems and short stories. Also note that only the metadata description is searchable (not the actual items themselves). More details can be found at my intra-site About page.
Credo (Special Collections and University Archives, W.E.B. Du Bois Library at the University of Massachusetts Amherst)

"The Shadow of Years," Du Bois' autobiographical chapter in Darkwater, was initially published in The Crisis, v.15, n.4 (February 1918): pp.167-171. In The Crisis version DuBois includes a first paragraph that is not found in the later, Darkwater version. The first paragraph of that earlier work reads:
THE most disquieting sign of my mounting years is a certain garrulity about myself, quite foreign to my young days. I find a growing tendency to fix innocent listeners with my stem eye, despite their all too evident longing to escape, and to tell them what life has meant to me. In this case I have been most easily persuaded that Crisis readers are more than anxious to know about me, simply because I am having a birthday. Selah!  [p.167]
* Robert Williams's Note: The physical page of the original that corresponds to the pagination 167-168 is torn, such that a few words at the top of page 168 are missing in the Google facsimile. The Darkwater chapter can supply the missing words.
"Credo." Published initially in The Independent, v.57, n.2914 (6 October 1904): p.787, it was included in DuBois' Darkwater.
Original Source for the "Credo":
Originally published in The Independent: start page at Google Books.
The "Credo" at the Electronic Text Center, University of Virginia Library as plain text and as a page image from The Independent.
Republications of the "Credo"
Reprinted as "A Negro's Creed" in The Christian Register, v.48, n.5 (February 2, 1905): p.135: page at HathiTrust Digital Library. [The author's by-line states "E. Burghardt Du Bois".]
Reprinted as "The Creed of a Man of Colour" in The British Friend: A Religious and Literary Journal, Written from the Standpoint of the Society of Friends (v.15, n.7; July 1905: pp.201-202): start page at Google Books
Reprinted as "A Negro's Creed" in The Public, v.8, n.404 (30 December 1905): pp.636-637: start page at Google Books.  [Another electronic copy.]
Reprinted in Jet as part of an anonymous obituary on Du Bois ("Mourn Death of DuBois: 'Father of Rights Move' [sic]," v.24, n.21 (12 September 1963): pp.45-47): start page of the "Credo" (pp.46-47) via Google Books.
Contemporary Secondary Sources on the "Credo":
Melvin Linwood Severy wrote Gillette's Social Redemption in which he briefly commented on Du Bois and then reprinted the "Credo" (Boston: Herbert B. Turner & Co., 1907) at pp.359-360.
       The late Paul Lawrence Dunbar, author and poet, was a negro. [sic, hic et passim] So also is William Edward Burghardt DuBois, Professor of Economics and History at Atlanta University, sometime fellow of Harvard in Sociology and late assistant in Sociology at the University of Pennsylvania, and author of several important works. We cannot do better in closing this chapter than to quote from a Chicago weekly an article by Mr. DuBois entitled "A Negro's Creed." We ask the Reader to figure out in his own mind the number of reincarnations which would be necessary, before such men as the author of "The Leopard's Spots" would be able to evolve to the level of this black man's creed. We hazard the opinion that if the statistical truth could be known as to how many negroes are already trying to reach these ideals, and how many white men, even ministers and Pharisees in high places, either repudiate them or are indifferent to them, both totals would come as a great surprise to the average reader. Certain it is that the man who can pen such a creed, has no natural bar to the enunciation of the grandest social and moral truths: " I believe in God who made of one blood all races that dwell on earth.
    [The rest of "Credo" was then printed in subsequent paragraphs.]
* Robert Williams's Note 1: "Negro" was not capitalized in the original text.
* R.W.'s Note 2: Thomas Dixon wrote the novel The Leopard's Spots (1902) from a Southern White supremacist perspective. The book is accessible at the Internet Archive (search result's page), UVA's Electronic Text Center (TOC), and at UVA's Uncle Tom's Cabin and American Culture (book page).
The Forty-First Annual report of the Public Schools, Columbus, Georgia for the Year Ending June 6, 1908 (Columbus, Ga.: Gilbert Printing Co., 1908) quoted DuBois's "Credo" on p.17 [Google Books]:
       The city of Columbus, like the entire South, is committed to the education of the negro. [sic, hic et passim] There is no question of that. The city of Columbus, unlike many sections of the South, has committed itself to a thoughtful, serious study of the proper education of the negro. It has undertaken in its elementary schools to give the negro children, along with the elements of thoro [sic] academic instruction, careful and effective industrial training. It has done this with the distinct purpose not alone of making them able to contribute something of service to the community which educates them, but primarily of engendering in them a spirit of service. "We are fond of quoting in the negro schools from Du Bois' Credo, "I believe in service, humble, reverent service, from the blackening of boots to the whitening of souls. "
* Robert Williams's Note: "Negro" was not capitalized in the original text.
"A Litany at Atlanta." Included in DuBois' 1920 book Darkwater this poem was composed, as DuBois wrote, "in the Day of Death, 1906." It expressed rage at the assaults against African Americans in a riot by Whites in September 1906. [See the Atlanta Race Riot web site, or the New Georgia Encyclopedia entry, or the various historical documents housed at the Georgia Public Broadcasting site]. According to Herbert Aptheker, Du Bois's literary executor, "Litany" was published initially in The Independent (October 1906). [See Aptheker (Ed.), Annotated Bibliography of the Published Writings of W.E.B. Du Bois (Millwood, NY: Kraus-Thomson Organization, 1973) at p.26 (Item 136)].
Original Source of the Poem:
Originally published as "A Litanty of Atlanta" in The Independent, v.61, no.3019 (11 October 1906): pp.856-858 [start page at Google Books].
Contemporary Republications of the Poem "A Litany at Atlanta"
Reprinted as "A Litanty of Atlanta" in The Public, v.9, no.446 (20 October 1906): pp.683-684 [start page at Google Books].
Entitled "A Litany of Atlanta" in James Weldon Johnson (Ed.), The Book of American Negro Poetry(NY: Harcourt, Brace & Co., 1922) at pp.49-53:
    * Google Books: start page
    * Project Gutenberg: download page
"A Litany at Atlanta" is included in The Poetry of the Negro, 1746-1949, an anthology edited by Langston Hughes and Arna Bontemps (Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Company, 1951, at pp.18-21) that is available at the Universal Library hosted by Carnegie Mellon University 9355...  [start page]
Note: The poem spans pages 18 to 21 in the original book, but begins on page 40
of the electronic verson. Select "40" from the middle of the drop-down menus at the top of web page.
Secondary Sources on the Poem "A Litany at Atlanta":
Robert Littell in a review of James Weldon Johnson's The Book of American Negro Poetry and Claude McKay's Harlem Shadows wrote this about the poem: "Mr. Du Bois' A Litany at Atlanta is impressive, but as poetry is buttered too thick with indignation. " [p.196 ] [Citation: Robert Littell, "Negro Poets." The New Republic, v.26, no.397 (12 July 1922): p.196].
Robert Thomas Kerlin (1866-1950) wrote Negro Poets and Their Poems, 2nd Ed. (Washington, D.C.,Associated Publishers, Inc., 1935) and included DuBois's "Litany" in a section entitled "Prose Poems" (at pp.217-218).
1. W. E. Burghardt DuBois
       The name of no Negro author is more widely known than that of W. E. Burg­hardt DuBois. Editor, historian, sociologist, essayist, poet—he is cele­brated in the Five Continents and the Seven Seas. It is in his impassioned prose that DuBois is most a poet. The Souls of Black Folk throbs constantly on the verge of poetry, while the several chapters of Darkwater end with a litany, chant, or credo, rhapsodical in character and in free-verse form. In all this work Dr. DuBois is the spokesman of perhaps as many millions of souls as any man living.
    "A Litany at Atlanta," placed as an epilogue to "The Shadow of the Years" in Darkwater,* should be read as the litany of a race. Modern literature has not such another cry of agony:
[Poem continued....]
   [Kerlin's footnote at the bottom of p.218 read:]
"    *Published by Harcourt, Brace & Campany, by whose kind permission I use this selection."
Du Bois wrote Disfranchisement, a pamphlet published by the National American Woman Suffrage Association (New York, 1912). He supported voting rights for women by arguing that the excluded knowledge they possessed could be used to inform governmental policymaking. In addition, he argued that African Americans likewise could contribute to U.S. democracy if voting rights were made secure. He wrote: "The real argument for democracy is then that in the people we have the real source of that endless life and unbounded wisdom which the real ruler of men must have." Du Bois included large portions this text in Darkwater's "Of the Ruling of Men" but expanded it to also focus on democratizing industry.
Accessible via Hathi Trust Digital Library
"The Call," a parable from Darkwater, was initially published by Du Bois as "The Woman" in The Crisis, v.2, n.1 (May 1911) at p.19 (within the Editorial section). Each work shares the same wording, but The Crisis version groups the text into fewer paragraphs.
"A Hymn to the People" was originally published in the African Methodist Episcopal Church Review, 28:2 (October 1911): 619-620. Du Bois delivered the poem at the Universal Races Congress held in London in 1911. It was reprinted in Darkwater with the slightly altered title of "A Hymn to the Peoples."
Accessible at the Ohio Historical Society's online exhibit, "The African American Experience in Ohio, 1850-1920" [as a page image]
   http://dbs.ohiohistory. org/africanam/...ID=2325&Current=P619 [1st of 2 pp]
"The Riddle of the Sphinx." This poem in Darkwater was originally titled "The Burden of Black Women" and had been published unsigned in The Crisis of November 1914 (v.9,n.1 at p.31). Slight variations exist between the 1914 Crisis version and the later Darkwater (1920) version: variations will be noticed in the capitalization of nouns and in the spacing between stanzas. However, two noticeable differences exist in wording between the 1914 and 1920 versions of the poem.
* A phrase involving "past" was replaced with a phrase invoking "the South":
1914 [2nd stanza]
"But out of the past of the Past's grey past, it screamed from the top of the sky,"
1920 [2nd stanza]
"But out of the South, — the sad, black South — it screamed from the top of the sky,"
* The word "guard" was replaced with "ward":
1914 [last stanza]
"Black mother of the iron hills that guard the blazing sea,"
1920 [last stanza]
"Black mother of the iron hills that ward the blazing sea,"
"The Burden of Black Women" (as well as the November 1914 issue of The Crisis) is available at Google Books
   http: //
"The Burden of Black Women" was reprinted in The New Crisis issue commemorating 90 years of publication (107:4, July/August 2000 at p.66)
"The Damnation of Women." Published in Darkwater, this essay showcased DuBois' views on the equality of women and their exploitation by racism.
A draft typescript of this chapter is accessible in the W.E.B. Du Bois papers at the Credo repository housed at the University of Massachusetts Amherst Library's Special Collections
"The Souls of White Folk." This is the version of the essay which was published by Du Bois in his book, Darkwater (1920). The periodical Monthly Review republished the essay in 2003 (specifically: Monthly Review, vol. 55, no. 6 (November 2003)).
Freely available at (printly friendly format)​ai_111269074/print
[NOTE: seems to be defunct.]
"Of the Ruling of Men" is Ch. VI in Darkwater. I have uploaded a version with the paragraphs numbered (but no pagination). I often use paragraph numbers when citing this primary source in my research.

The Freeman in April 1920 published an anonymously written review of Darkwater in "A Reviewer's Note-book" section (v.1:n.4, 7 April 1920, at p.95). It is presented here verbatim and in its entirety.
Very impressive is the force of feeling behind the essays and sketches and poems of W. E. Burghardt Du Bois' "Darkwater" (Harcourt, Brace and Howe.) In a sense the successor of Booker Washington, the editor of the Crisis reveals himself here as a very different type of leader and one far less digestible from the traditional American point of view. Where Booker Washington was a Fabian, Du Bois is a temperamental insurgent: he is, for the Negroes, a nationalist of the true Mazzinian stripe. But, before everything else, he is a poet, a poet who knows how to handle statistics; bitter, passionate, eloquent. He is a thinker, too: well-conducted are his arguments on the position of Negro women, on the Negro as servant, on the status of the black face in international affairs. What will shock many readers into thinking on their own account is Mr. DuBois' disillusionment with America as a moral protagonist in the new era. "Instead of standing as a great example of the success of democracy and the possibility of human brotherhood," he says, "America has taken her place as an awful example of its pitfalls and failures, so far as black and brown and yellow peoples are concerned. . . . America, Land of Democracy, wanted to believe in the failure of democracy so far as darker people are concerned." As the spokesman of the Negro race he thus ranges himself beside the representatives of the immigrant population who, disabused and unassimilated, confront the assumptions of American history with a terrible question which the next generation will have to answer.
Page 95 of The Freeman at Hathi Trust Digital Library
An anonymous review of Darkwater published by The Journal of Negro History (Vol. V, No. 2 (April 1920): 257-258). This journal was edited by Carter Godwin Woodson [bio]. The full text of the review is presented below verbatim and in its entirety (with a note, indicated by a bracketed asterisk, added by RWW):
Darkwater. By W. E. B. DuBois. Harcourt, Brace and Howe, New York, 1920. Pp. 276.
     This work is a collection of essays by the well-known author of Souls of Black Folk, The Philadelphia Negro, The Suppression of the African Slave Trade, and The Negro. The aim of the work is to show that the Negro problem is essentially connected with the problem of work or wages or education and government which, when solved, will mean also the solution of the race problem. To give his point of view, the author, therefore, describes his childhood, training, and outlook on the world as a Negro. To show the "vast emotional content of the social problem,[*] he has inserted between the chapters, bits of poetry and fancy which interpret the bewilderment, the disappointment, the longing and the faith of millions of men. The work ends with a brief philosophy of duty and death and a story and a hymn looking toward human unity.
     This book, therefore, follows the trend of thought characteristic of Dr. DuBois. As in the beautifully written essays entitled Souls of Black Folk he has here put himself forward as a person representative of millions of black men seriously suffering from social proscription. Although his contention that the race problem is interwoven with the economic problems of the country is presented as the reason for directing more attention to this problem, the author does not treat the race question from an economic point of view. This has been the defect of the historical works which Dr. DuBois has written. He is at best a popular essayist with a bit of poetic genius. In all of his discussions of the race problem his mind has not as yet been adequate to the task of scientific treatment of the question. The Suppression of the African Slave Trade is a literary compilation or digest of State and national legislation to curb an evil, but it does not exhibit any relief or a unifying influence. The Philadelphia Negro is an ordinary report on social conditions which a local secretary of the Urban League could now compile in almost any large city in about three or six months and his The Negro is merely a summary of a number of popular works setting forth such history of Africa as a few travellers have been able to learn from the outside. It is hoped, therefore, that Dr. DuBois will take his task more seriously that he may finally write a scholarly economic treatise in this long neglected field.
 * Note 1: The quotation mark at the start of this phrase appears to be in error. I was not able to locate within Darkwater either the phrase "vast emotional content of the social problem", or any of its subphrases that might point to a theme similar to the reviewer's.
 Note 2: I will observe that the anonymous reviewer (a) did not consider the importance of The Suppression of the African Slave-Trade as a "compilation or digest of State and national legislation", one which various historians of the era acknowledged as meticulous in detail; and (b) did not consider the historical -- that is, path-breaking -- significance of The Philadelphia Negro.
Download page for the entire Journal of Negro History, Vol. V
http://www.archive. org/details/journalofnegrohi05assouoft
In The Expositor (1920), a monthly religious periodical oriented to pastors, we find a brief notice of Darkwater within the section "The Book-Shelf" compiled and written by Rev. I.J. Swanson, D.D. It is presented here verbatim and in its entirety:
    Darkwater. By W. E. B. DuBois. 276 pp. $2.00. Harcourt, Brace & Howe, New York. An eloquent and, at times, a poignant appeal to the American people for a "square deal" to the Negro. Its recital of the limitations, injustice, wrongs and cruelties suffered by the black man in this Republic at the hands of his white fellow citizens makes one feel that democracy has still a long way to go. Thoughtful white men ought to read this book, written as it is by a great Negro leader, who discloses the aspirations of his own people to be accorded their full measure of rights.
 Note (Citation): I.J. Swanson. "The Book-Shelf" [DuBois's Darkwater]. The Expositor, 21:12 (September 1920): 1117-18.
Start page of the notice / review at Google Books
An anonymous review of Darkwater published in The Outlook (v.126, (15 December 1920): p. 690) within "The New Books" section of the periodical. The full text of the brief, and overall negative, review is presented here in its entirety and verbatim:
Darkwater. By W. E. B. Du Bois. Harcourt, Brace & Howe, New York.
     Dr. Du Bois, as is well known, is the editor of "The Crisis" and one of the most urgent propagandists of race equality in the United States. "Darkwater" is the record of his convictions. It contains a picture of the relationship between white and colored citizens of the United States which is both moving and disquieting. The Outlook recognizes the unhappy background from which Dr. Du Bois's utterances have sprung; it knows the underlying tragedy of the struggle which he paints. Nevertheless it is convinced that the final solution of the problem of race relationship [sic] in America will not be found, must not be found, through the means which Dr. Du Bois advocates. Dr. Du Bois is too close to the struggle to see clearly the problems involved. His work is a creation of passion rather than intelligence. It is, on the whole, a volume which will convince only those already convinced of the justice and soundness of his position.
 R. Williams' Note: The periodical's name, The Outlook, was not italicized.
Start page of the review via Google Books  [About-this-book Page],M1
Review of Darkwater by Robert C. Benchley.
This is a short review -- more of a commentary -- published in Robert Benchley's Love Conquers All (NY: H. Holt & Co., 1922). Noted for his humorous pieces, Benchley used satire to criticize the conditions which prompted Du Bois to write the book. Benchely wrote of Du Bois:
      Perhaps during the war he heard of the bloody crimes of our enemies, and saw preachers and editors and statesmen stand aghast at the barbaric atrocities which won for the German the name of Hun, and then looked toward his own people and saw them being burned, disembowelled and tortured with a civic unanimity and tacit legal sanction which made the word Hun sound weak.
    Perhaps he has heard it boasted that in America every man who is honest, industrious and intelligent has a good chance to win out, and has seen honest, industrious and intelligent men whose skins are black stopped short by a wall so high and so thick that all they can do, on having reached that far, is to bow their heads and go slowly back.
    Any one of these reasons should have been sufficient for having written "Darkwater."
As part of the Project Gutenberg text of Benchley's Love Conquers All
A book review of Darkwater by Robert F. Foerster and published by the well known social work periodical The Survey, Vol. XLIV, No. 11 (June 12, 1920): p. 384. The complete text of the review is presented below verbatim:
By W. E. B. DuBois. Harcourt, Brace & Howe. 276 pp. Price $2; by mail of the Survey $2.20.
    Dr. DuBois is given to staring relentlessly at just those things upon which many people are careful to shut their eyes. Hence such people will wish that his book had not been written. Actually it is a book so skilfully put together, so passionately felt, so lyrically expressed, that it will be read widely. May it also be read wisely, dispassionately!
    The themes which come and go through it, some developed at length, others merely hinted at, are many: black women as mothers, as workers, as victims of masters; children as discoverers of the white man's antipathies, checked in the opportunity to grow and develop; workers elbowed aside, scorned, trodden under by the civilization of East St. Louis; citizens denied representation in their government; travelers deterred by the Jim Crow car; soldiers rebuffed by their white compatriots -- these are samples. The autobiographical reference is frequent. Thus and so it feels to be a Negro -- how long will the white man's conscience sanction depreciation of the black?
    But the book is more than an appeal for justice. It is partly an articulate argument. A chapter on politics, for example, is a reasoned statement of the proper role of majorities and minorities in any society, and makes a skilful use, for the purposes of analogy, of the argument for suffrage for women. At a good many points, strikingly in the matter of education, what is asked for the Negro is asked at the same time for the white man.
    Behind the European war, whatever the ideals of individuals, was the white man's fierce contention for control of the colored races, yellow and brown as well as black (but was not one colored race inspired also with the white race's ambition?). Since, however, the colored races include two-thirds of the world's population, true faith in humanity, Dr. DuBois declares, requires faith in the colored skin. This faith he seeks to justify, putting Christ and all the Asiatics in the same group with the Negroes -- a lumping together of dissimilars which is surely not to be justified.
    A chapter on the possibilities of education begins with the life-story of Coleridge-Taylor, whose heredity was as largely white as it was Negro. At such points as these the skeptical or hostile reader (for whom of necessity the book is written) will wish for greater objectivity.
    With Dr. DuBois' recommendation that Africa be developed by and for Africans and not through such exploitation of races as several European governments have sanctioned, many persons will have full sympathy. If the institutions of the civilization that grew up in such circumstances should turn out to be impressively different from those made by white men, there could be no occasion for surprise, and perhaps there would be occasion for congratulation.
    I believe that Dr. DuBois has overstressed in his book the points of identity, not only of the colored races as such, but of the white and black races especially; yet I am equally sure that white men have overstressed the points of divergence. The signal service of this book is that it quite magnificently points out the white man's error and makes clear as day the fact that the "race question" is, at least to a great extent, a question of social environment. A book so genuine as Darkwater is a book to respect. It leaves perplexing questions unanswered -- but whose book upon the Negro does not?
Robert F. Foerster.    
 Note: Darkwater was not italicized or underlined in the original text.
Entire volume of The Survey, Vol. 44 (at the Internet Archive site)
http://www.archive. org/details/surveycharityorg44survrich  [43 MB DjVu]
A brief notice of Darkwater 's publication is to be found in the Harvard Alumni Bulletin (1920), published by the Harvard Alumni Association. It is reproduced here verbatim and typographically as in the original:
    '90—W. E. Burghardt DuBois, "Darkwater", Harcourt, Brace & Howe: a companion volume to "The Souls of Black Folk", dealing with the place of the darker races in the modern world.
 Note 1 (Citation): Harvard Alumni Association. Harvard Alumni Bulletin, 22:31 (6 May 1920): p.725.
Note 2: The "'90" refers to 1890, the year that Du Bois graduated with a Bachelor's degree from Harvard University.
'After a Reading of "Darkwater"', a poem written by Elizabeth Curtis Holman (The Crisis, v.20, n.4 (Whole No. 118) (August 1920): p.186). The poem is reprinted below in its entirety:
 Elizabeth Curtis Holman
 I DID not think . . . I did not know . . .
    What pale excuse is this I make
In answer to my brother's woe,
    Age-long, for deep injustice sake!

Across his mute and patient soul,
    While I have gone my heedless way,
The shadows of a fate might roll
    That deepened night and darkened day.

. . . But I have read a burning page,
    That glowed with white and soul-wrung fire,
And now no more I may engage
    My conscience with a feeble hire.

For all the wrong I did not heed,
    Chance-born in happier paths to live,
I cry unto my brother's need
    One word of love and shame . . . forgive!
The New York State Library Bibliography Bulletin of 15 March 1921 published a brief notice of Darkwater. This bulletin was entitled "Best Books of 1920 Selected for a Small Public Library". Darkwater headed the "Sociology" unit related to Blacks and was placed ahead of H. J. Seligmann's The Negro Faces America. The "Prefatory Note" said:
"When several good books on the same or closely related subjects have appeared, one is chosen to head the group, and the others are described in appended notes which attempt so to characterize each of the books that the librarian may select the one best adapted to her need." (p.5)
    The brief notice of Darkwater is reproduced here verbatim, but without the non-textual-content of the original (e.g., library call number and price). Click for an image of the entry. (Press the BackSpace key to return to this page). In the notice we read:
      "A bitter cry against the treatment of the negro. Written with intense feeling by a cultured negro, [sic] artistic and often oversensitive in temperament. Combines autobiography, the essay, story and poetry."
Note 1 (Citation): New York State Library Bibliography Bulletin 70, No.730, 15 March 1921 at p.7.
Page accessible via Hathi Trust Digital Books
Download page at the Internet Archive for the full text ybul03librgoog

"Darkwater: Recital in Four Dominions "Terry Adkins After W.E.B. DuBois.
This exhibition at the Arthur Ross Gallery of the University of Pennsylvania was held from 14 December 2002 to 2 March 2003. Adkins the artist sought to explore Du Bois' thoughts and activities via the four dominions of music, prints, sculpture, and documents.
Various photos of the exhibit and opening reception
http://www.upenn. edu/ARG/archive/darkwater/darkwater.html
WHYY TV 12: RealAudio clips by Terry Adkins and Tukufu Zuberi html

Core: Search Engine and Aggregator
Core ( gathers open-access materials found on the Internet and provides descriptions and external links to those items. It is a not-for-profit service organized and managed by the UK's Open University and Jisc, which is a UK-based non-profit organization working on digital infrastructure for UK colleges and universities.
Searching the Core database for "Du Bois" and "Darkwater" produces more than 400 results from journal articles and pre-prints to graduate theses and dissertations. Some results will only mention Du Bois and Darkwater, and not delve fully into this text. Texts from other search results connect Darkwater with further writings by him. Based on the titles of the search matches, the results include materials on Black women, "The Comet" (science fiction short story), Pan-Africanism, and interracial heterosexual romance, among other topics.
Ecology of the Color Line: Race and Nature in American Literature, 1895-1941 is a Ph.D. dissertation written by John Claborn [faculty page] for the Department of English, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (2012). In the "Abstract" Claborn refers to the overarching interpretive lens and the scope of his study. He writes:
In the Forethought to The Souls of Black Folk, W. E. B. Du Bois prophesied that the "problem of the twentieth century is the problem of the colour line." A hundred years later, ecological crises join racial crises as perhaps the emergent problems of the twenty-first century. In Du Boisian spirit, my project explores how the color line and what I call the ecological line—the line that runs between humans and their environment—intersect. "Ecology of the Color Line: Race and Nature in American Literature, 1895-1941" reimagines many literary genres and critical disputes traditionally focalized through problematics of race and politics: the Washington–Du Bois debates on racial uplift, New Negro cultural nationalism, the Great Migration narrative, black Marxism, and ethnic proletarian literature. Employing methods of environmental historicism, archival research, and intersectional analysis, my project argues not only that intertwining racial and ecological problems erupted along the color line, but also that these problems form a constitutive element of our thinking about Race and politics in twentieth-century American literature. [p.ii]
Pertinent to Du Bois, Claborn examines a specific chapter within Darkwater:
Chapter two, "Du Bois at the Grand Canyon: National Parks and Double Consciousness in Darkwater," focuses on how Du Bois works with and against the emerging conservation and wilderness preservation movements of the early twentieth century. My reading of Darkwater's chapter "Of Beauty and Death" examines Du Bois's juxtaposition of visits to national parks such as the Grand Canyon with anecdotes about life under Jim Crow, bringing double consciousness to bear on the history of conservation. Through montage and surrealist formal techniques, he uses Colonel Charles Young—the highest-ranking black military officer at the time and acting superintendent of Sequoia National Park in 1903—as a figure who embodies the intertwined histories of Jim Crow and conservation. For Du Bois, the national parks become an environmental correlative for integration and democratic pluralism, shifting "culture" and "nature" from oppositional to differentiated modern spaces. [p.iii]
Accessible as a PDF file from the IDEALS database of Dissertations and Theses at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign  [Repository page]
Claborn published his dissertation as a book, Civil Rights and the Environment in African American Literature, 1895-1941. [NY: Bloomsbury Academic [Bloomsbury Publishing, 2017.] The entire book is open access. Chapter 2 is titled "W.E.B. Du Bois at the Grand Canyon: Nature, History, and Race in Darkwater" [Open access: pp.45-80].
"Round Table's Response to Du Bois' 'Damnation of Women'."
A discussion of the work and its contemporary significance was sponsored by The New Crisis and moderated by Kimberle Crenshaw. Participants were Kimberle Crenshaw, Johnnetta B. Cole, Ruby Dee, Farah Griffin, Beverly Guy-Sheftall, Elaine Jones, Jewell Jackson McCabe, Judy Simmons, and Faye Wattleton.
In The New Crisis, November-December 2000 (printer-friendly format)
Introduction to the Roundtable discussion by Kimberle Crenshaw
http: //
  [NOTA BENE: As of early 2016 this article and these publications do not seem to be available at the website.]
"Du Bois, Darkwater, and Being Ahead of One's Time." Introduction by Joe R. Feagin to an edition of Darkwater (NY: Humanity Books, 2003). [Feagin's faculty home page].
Texas A & M University: Sociology Department
http://sociweb.tamu. edu/Faculty/feagin/dubois.html
"From Mississippi to Melbourne via Natal: The Invention of the Literacy Test as a Technology of Racial Exclusion" by Marilyn Lake [faculty page]. Lake refers extensively to Du Bois' "The Souls of White Folk" as she begins her essay on how literacy tests were used to buttress the cross-national domination of whiteness in the U.S.A., South Africa, and Australia during the late 19th Century. Lake writes that
 most studies [of whiteness] have conceptualised their subject within a national frame of analysis, charting national dynamics and histories. When overseas ideas are identified as important they are usually conceptualised as external influences shaping a national experience rather than as constituting transnational knowledge. Yet, as Du Bois saw clearly, the emergence of this ‘new religion’ of whiteness was a transnational phenomenon and all the more powerful for that. It produced in turn its own powerful solidarities of resistance. [...]
 White men, ...whether in the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Rhodesia or Kenya, looked to each other for sympathy and support, for ideas and practical instruction. They exchanged knowledge and know-how, in particular the uses of the census, the literacy test and the passport as key technologies in building and defending white men’s countries. [...]
 The targets of the literacy test changed as did its specifications, from the requirement to write one’s name, to demonstration of the comprehension of the constitution, to the ability to fill out an application form in English to a dictation test in any European language. Beginning with Mississippi in 1890, the deployment of a literacy test for racial purposes was a key aspect of the transnational process noticed by Du Bois: the constitution of 'whiteness' as the basis of both personal identity and transnational political community. Literacy was used to patrol racial borders (electoral as well as national) within and between nations, and in the process literacy became code for whiteness.
[Footnotes omitted]
Ch. 13 in Connected Worlds: History in Transnational Perspective,
edited by Ann Curthoys and Marilyn Lake [ebook citation], (Canberra: Australian National University E Press, 2005)
http: // . .page=ch13&chapters=h  [starting section]
"'Deliberately Using the Word Colonial in a Much Broader Sense': W.E.B. Du Bois's Concept of 'Semi-Colonialism' As Critique of and Contribution to Postcolonialism" by Reiland Rabaka (2003) [faculty page].
Rabaka writes:
 Du Bois was apparently "postcolonial" prior to contemporary postcolonial discourse, a curious thing when one considers that his work has routinely been omitted from the said discourse. He engaged colonialism and "the colonial problem" from his 1895 doctoral dissertation, The Suppression of the African Slave Trade, through to his final pieces of radical journalism in The National Guardian. [ . . . . ] Du Bois's "cognitive mapping" project took into consideration not only the interlocking and intersecting nature of neocolonialism and, as he put it, "the new capitalism," but also racism and sexism.... There is, to my mind, no better example of Du Bois's critical engagement of the dialectics of colonialism and capitalism, and racism and sexism, and the interlocking, intersecting and interconnecting nature of each of the aforementioned than his 1920 monumental pièce de résistance, Darkwater: Voices from within the Veil.
[Citations and footnotes omitted]
In Jouvert , v.7, n.2 (Winter/Spring 2003)
http://social.chass.ncsu. edu/jouvert/v7i2/rabaka.htm
"W.E.B. DuBois's 'The Comet' and Contributions to Critical Race Theory: An Essay on Black Radical Politics and Anti-Racist Social Ethics" by Reiland Rabaka (2006) [faculty page]. In his conclusion Rabaka writes:
 . . . Du Bois's short story ["The Comet"] suggests that more radical measures than mere piecemeal socio-political reform and reluctant gradualism are needed to make the system an authentic multicultural democracy, as opposed to what Charles Mills (1998, pp. 139-166 [Blackness Visible: Essays on Philosophy and Race; Cornell U. P.]) has termed a "Herrenvolk" or ruling race democracy. There is a sense in which "The Comet" can be read as a racially oppressed and poverty-stricken person's dream come true, not in any racially malicious or morally repugnant sense but in a Fanonian sense, in terms of the oppressed desperately desiring to see their oppressors and the oppressive system they imperially invented toppled. The story is also Fanonian in the sense that there is room for racial reconciliation and redemption if--and this is an extremely important "if" that cannot be over-emphasized--if they both free themselves from the social conventions, vices, and vulgarities of the former white supremacist world.
In the Ethnic Studies Review, Vol.29, Issue 1 (Summer 2006) [Download page] [PDF]
[ Note: The following link is defunct: ]
"The Prophetic and Pragmatic Philosophy of "Race" in W.E.B. DuBois's 'The Comet'" by Ronald R. Sundstrom [faculty page; personal page].
Sundstrom writes:
 "The Comet," a melodramatic short story . . ., is an exceptional piece, because it unambiguously displays DuBois's view of "race" as a social construct. Further, his depiction of "race" as purely the creation of social forces . . . offers a prophetic, but also illusive, humanist vision of the world sans the veil of "race." The content and message of "The Comet," I believe, displays an ironic stance towards "race." A vision, a dark vision, if you will, that saw through the pathology and absurdity of "race," and sought to display the sickness of the American "racial" politic.
[Footnote omitted; italics in original]
In the Newsletter on Philosophy and the Black Experience [APA Newsletters], 99:1 (Fall 1999)
http://www.apaonline. org/publications/newsletters/v99n1_Black_03.aspx
  [NOTA BENE: As of Late August 2011 this article, this publication, and indeed the APA Newsletters, do not seem to be freely available at the APA web site. A log-in page greets those who click on the text link.]
"Afrofuturism, Science Fiction, and the History of the Future," written by Lisa Yaszek [faculty page], is available in Socialism and Democracy Online (March 2006). Yaszek provides an overview of Afrofuturism, which she defines as "a larger aesthetic mode that encompasses a diverse range of artists working in different genres and media who are united by their shared interest in projecting black futures derived from Afrodiasporic experiences." She discusses various authors who are considered to typify Afrofuturism, including Martin Delany, Charles Chesnutt, Ralph Ellison, George Schuyler, Octavia Butler, and Nalo Hopkinson.
    Yaszek also notes Du Bois's short story "The Comet" which is contained in Darkwater. After summarizing the plot, she concludes by writing ". . .Du Bois ends his story by suggesting not only that it will take a natural disaster to eradicate racism in America, but that without such a disaster there may [be] no future whatsoever for black Americans."
In Socialism and Democracy Online, Issue Nr. 42, 20:3 (March 2006)
Profile of Du Bois' Darkwater: Voices from within the Veil written by the web site facilitator, Robert W. Williams . Please note: to read more than the first 600 words of this article will require a daily, monthly, or yearly membership at The Literary Encyclopedia.
At The Literary Encyclopedia (originally posted on 26 September 2005)
http://www.litencyc. com/php/sworks.php?rec=true&UID=5758
"W.E.B. Du Bois and the Paradox of Democracy" was a presentation that I delivered on 22 January 2015 as part of the Bennett College Faculty Lec­ture Series. I concentrated on "Of the Ruling of Men" (Chap­ter VI in Dark­water) as a DuBoisian contribution to democratic theorizing.

"The Atlanta Riot: A Discourse [delivered] October 7, 1906," by Francis James Grimke (also Grimké), is a work discussing to the same race riot which fueled Du Bois' "A Litany at Atlanta." F.J. Grimke was a Presbyterian minister and part of the extended Grimke family whose various members were notable for their activism on issues like abolition, civil rights, and women's rights. He provided an explanation of the underlying conditions leading to the Atlanta Race Riot: "progressive, intelligent, thrifty, well-to-do" African Americans were economically and psychologically threatening (RWW's term) to poorer Whites in particular, and also were a direct challenge to the widespread White supremacist ideology holding that African Americans were allegedly inferior as a result of supposedly natural and divinely ordained causes. In Grimke's words:
     Wherever the Negro has been fairly tested he has made an honorable record for himself; has demonstrated his capacity to do what other races have done. All over the southland are unmistakable evidences of his progress; unmistakable evidences of his capacity to do what other men have done. And yet, in spite of the record which he is making, the daily, hourly proof that he is offering of his ability to succeed, the old theory of his inferiority is still maintained, is still insisted upon; is still accepted as true. Instead of revising their theory in view of the facts, in stead of rejoicing in the ever-growing evidence of the black man's progress and aiding in every possible way to hasten his development, the fact that he is forging to the front seems only to intensify the feeling against him. [....] Everywhere the black man is beset by perils. He doesn't know what a day may bring forth; he doesn't know what day he may be shot down, or some member of his family, or some friend or acquaintance murdered. We have just had an exhibition, a most shocking exhibition of the constant peril in which this race is forced to live, in the unprovoked, brutal and dastardly assaults that were made upon members of it in Atlanta, Ga. Assaults not upon the guilty, not upon the criminal classes, but upon all Negroes indiscriminately. The country was horrified; the whole civilized world stood aghast; and yet what took place in Atlanta may take place in any southern city at any time; the spirit that pervaded Atlanta--the murderous, blood thirsty, Negro-hating spirit--is the spirit that pervades the entire South; it needs only the occasion to call it forth.
 Note: The full citation is: Francis J. Grimke, The Atlanta Riot: A Discourse [delivered] October 7, 1906. Washington, D. C.: s.n., 1906.
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